Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders branded by feelings of anxiety and fear. Children may have more than one anxiety disorder. More than 2 million children were on anti-anxiety medications in 2013. The age group with the largest number of medicated children was ages 6 to 12 years.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
It’s perfectly normal for your child to stress about grades or an upcoming sporting event. However, if your child worries excessively or if anxiety and fear affect your child’s ability to perform daily activities, your child may be suffering from GAD. Doctors may prescribe Cymbalta, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) as treatment. In 2014, the FDA approved Cymbalta for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in children ages 7 to 17. SNRI medications carry serious risks, including birth defects, skin disease, suicidal thoughts and liver toxicity. The FDA also warns of Cymbalta discontinuation syndrome, which is when a person experiences withdrawal side effects after stopping Cymbalta. Effexor, another SNRI, has not been approved by the FDA for use in children, but some doctors prescribe it for older teens as an off-label treatment for depression and anxiety.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Children with OCD experience unwanted and intrusive thoughts — or obsessions. They feel compelled to repeat rituals and routines to try to lessen their anxiety. OCD can affect children as young as 2 or 3, though most children with OCD are diagnosed around age 10. The FDA has approved several drugs to help control the symptoms of OCD in children, including Prozac, Zoloft and Luvox.
Children with Tourette syndrome may make unusual movements or sounds known as tics. The FDA has approved haloperidol, pimozide and aripiprazole to treat tics. All three medications have the potential to cause unwanted side effects, so most doctors prescribe the blood pressure medications guanfacine or clonidine. This is known as “off-label” use because the FDA has not approved either drug for treatment of tics.
Every child can feel sad or depressed at times, but mood disorders are more extreme and harder to manage than typical sadness. Doctors may prescribe antidepressants or antipsychotics to treat mood disorders in children. SSRIs are popular antidepressants, despite an increased risk of suicidal thoughts in children. Prozac is the only SSRI approved for use in children older than 8 years of age. Antipsychotics prescribed to children include Abilify (aripiprazole), Thorazine (chlorpromazine), Risperdal (risperidone) and Invega (paliperidone).
These new kinds of drugs called atypical antipsychotics can have serious side effects in children like drastic weight gain, sedation and movement disorders. Risperdal and Invega also include a side effect called gynecomastia, a condition where boys develop breasts.
Nearly 2.2 million children were on antidepressants in 2013, and more than 830,000 were taking antipsychotics. In addition, doctors often prescribe the anti-seizure drug Depakote for children with bipolar disorder, a use not approved by the FDA. The medication has a black box warning for increased risk of liver failure and pancreatitis in children and adults.
(Blog owner’s note: Antidepressants are sometimes mistakenly prescribed to depressed children who are actually experiencing the depressed phase of bipolar disorder. The risk is that antidepressants can bump a child’s mood way too high, into mania.)
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)
Doctors have been diagnosing children as young as 4 with ADHD. In the past nearly 30 years, the number of children diagnosed with ADHD has grown six-fold. Scientists estimate about 5 percent of children actually have ADHD, but the CDC shows that 15 percent are diagnosed.
Doctors usually treat children with ADHD with stimulants such as Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Adderall (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine). Side effects of these drugs include decreased appetite, sleeping problems and headaches. Less common but more severe side effects include the development of tics and personality changes. Data from 2013 showed more than 4.4 million children were on ADHD drugs.
Children with a history of heart conditions may have a higher risk of strokes, heart attacks and sudden death when taking stimulants. Studies have also found rare cases of children developing hallucinations – such as hearing voices and increased suspicion without reason – or becoming manic.
Doctors may prescribe the use of medications to treat the health effects of bullying.
For example, children who suffer from depression or anxiety disorders (two health effects of bullying) may be prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as Prozac. It’s important for parents to be aware that all SSRIs carry risks.
Childhood Bullying & Its Health Effects
Research shows that bullying behavior can start as early as age 3. Both children who are bullied and those who bully others may have serious lasting health problems as a result of these actions.
A 2017 study by University of Pittsburgh researchers, for example, found that children who are bullied experience mental and physical health issues that can last well into adulthood. The study shows that bullied children are more likely to have trouble with finances and to be treated unfairly by others. They are also more pessimistic about their futures, according to the study.
On the other hand, the study revealed bullies are more likely to be stressed, hostile and aggressive, and to smoke cigarettes and marijuana. Both bullies and their victims are at a higher risk of heart disease, which is the leading cause of death for both men and women.
Children & Medications
Children are particularly vulnerable to the potentially harmful side effects of drugs during important stages of physical and mental development. The amount of mental health drugs prescribed to youth has increased at an alarming rate, and each comes with its own risk.
This is the full article from which the above post is excerpted:
“Children’s Comprehensive Health Guide – From Newborn to Preteen”